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Fri, Oct 21, 2011 4:23 PM
The Science of Man-eating
The science of ‘Man-eating’* among lions (Panthera leo) with a reconstruction of the natural history of the “Man-eaters of Tsavo”
Julian C. Kerbis Peterhans1 and Thomas Patrick Gnoske2
European Paleolithic rock art depicts cave lions embedded with arrows or spears (Figure 1 in Frobenius,1933; Begouen and Breuil, 1958; Ruspoli, 1987). One of the earliest historical depictions of man-eating that we have found is the nearly 5,000 year old "Battlefield Pallette" depicting a lion eating, and/or killing, dead or wounded Libyans during a clash with the Egyptians (Aldred, 1980). Bushmen rock artists illustrate numerous scenes of lions dismembering humans as well as human retaliation (Tongue, 1909). Stow (1905) writes that lion fed upon the flesh of Bushmen even more than their sheep. With the advent of the colonial era in Africa and Asia, documentation of man-eating became more regular. This coincided with the exploration of continental interiors in the 19th century, the debut of “big game trophy hunting”, and the construction of inland railways in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (Sowerby, 1923; Hill, 1976).
6 ? - 8 ? years of age). Their squamoso-parietal sutures are obliterated making them at least 6 1/2 years old (Smuts, et al. 1978), but their maxillo-premaxillary sutures are not even partially closed, making them under 9 years old. Their teeth also betray this age range as they are yellowing and there is visible wear on the canine, incisor, P3, and P4 (>5-6 years of age, Ibid.). Although these individuals may have been siblings due to their association and similar size and morphology, FMNH 23969 displays more apical wear than FMNH 23970. We doubt that their difference in age extends beyond one or two years.
Both animals were huge individuals as Patterson’s published photos (1907) demonstrate. Patterson uses the following in describing the first lion: “enormous brute”, “powerful beast in every way", (Patterson, 1898-1899). FMNH 23970 was 9’8” long (nose to tail) and 44” in height at the shoulder while FMNH 23969 was 9’6” long and 48” in height at the shoulder (Ibid.). Shoulder heights for East African male lions average 37.8" in height and 8'9" in length according to Meinertzhagen (1938) who collected in the Athi-Kapiti Plains and in the Serengeti. Guggisberg (1975) provides an additional measurement: 3’ in height at the shoulder and 9’ long.Images from the above book. Lion fallenhttp://www.taxidermy4cash.com/Edwardian.html
Patterson claimed (1907) that the man-eaters were prime-aged, healthy males and was so cited by subsequent authors (e.g. Selous, 1908; Akeley, 1923; Bradley, 1926; Guggisberg, 1961; Cloudsley-Thompson, 1967). We can only assume that this referred to the condition of their limbs and torso and that he did not inspect their dentition. Residing in the collections of Field Museum for 75 years, the two Tsavo lion skulls had not been differentiated from one another in any way. One of us (TPG) rediscovered these skulls in the collections of the Field Museum in the 1980's and subsequently deduced which was the first man-eater shot by referring to Patterson’s discussion of the deaths of each (Patterson, 1907). The first lion (FMNH 23970) was killed by shots to the body, while the second lion was shot with several bullets, including one to the head that shattered its zygomatic arch (FMNH 23969). Although Patterson states that he may
have shot off the tip of the canine of the first man-eater slain (Patterson 1907, 1925), both lions are missing the apical end of their lower left canines due to pre-existing traumas
Percival portrayed lions of the coastal region as particularly large and aggressive. Soldiers mounted on horseback came across lions that: ’learned that food in the shape of horses abandoned on account of injuries or sickness were to be had without exertion on their part, and they dogged the mounted men day and night. As this was near the German lines, firing was strictly forbidden; hence the lions grew bold and exceedingly troublesome. They would come fearlessly up to the very outskirts of a camp’ (p.287).
Assuming an equal sex ratio, male lions were more likely to attack domestic stock than females (61 vs. 51 attacks). Data from most African localities indicate that adult female lions typically outnumber adult males by ratios ranging from 1.4:1 to 4:1: Lake Manyara (Makacha and Schaller 1969: 3 to 1), Kafue (Mitchel et al. 1965: 1.7:1), Serengeti plains (Adamson 1964: 3:1, Schaller 1972: 2:1), and Kruger National Parks (Anonymous 1960: 1.4:1). Schaller (1972) describes more equal, but still male-heavy sex ratios in the Serengeti woodlands while Rogers (1974) describes the same for lions in Selous National Park, Tanzania. Preliminary data from Tsavo (Russell, personal communication) indicate a predominance of females. Among 64 lion distributed between 5 prides, Russell only documented 10 adult males. This suggests that the impact of male lions in Tsavo is especially disproportionate to their numbers. However, according to KWS archives, female lion with dependent cubs can be especially destructive; they accounted for the highest number of kills per attack. Between 1994 and 1998, adult male lions were mostly responsible for attacks on humans in Tsavo East National Park, accounting for 5 of 6 attacks (83%) and both deaths.
This indicates a behavioural tradition, which, in a social species, is passed down from one generation to the next (e.g. a cultural tradition). For the Busanga Flats, Mloszewski (1983) discusses ‘buffalo-selective predation’ reflected in lion proficiency in tracking buffalo herds, pulling down individuals, ‘buffalo-killing proficiency’, and even in their ignoring of other potential prey while seeking out remote buffalo
V. Selection of Abnormally Behaving Prey
Lions often select ill or abnormally behaving prey (Schaller, 1972). Several examples suggest that lions also select ‘abnormally' behaving humans. For a lion, abnormal human behavior might include the deranged or inebriated. Capstick (1981) describes a man-eating outbreak in Zambia that began with the killing of the “village idiot” from the town of Kalundi. Late night drunkenness coincided with a man-eating outbreak in and around Queen Elizabeth National Park (Uganda) in 1993. Thirteen adult male humans were taken by this adult female, with excellent teeth, known as the Kazinga Man-eater along the Kazinga channel in western Uganda (Kurtis Productions, 1999). Taylor (1959) also discusses the killing of a drunk by a leopard in Mozambique. In a similar vein, George Rushby, quoted in the Tanganyika Game Department, Annual Report, (1951-1952) describes the following:
.. 40-41% of all kills occurred near rivers.. Lion preference for buffalo, an often dangerous prey species, can lead to debilitating injuries, even death (Roosevelt and Heller, 1914; Mangani, 1962; Schaller, 1972; Sinclair, 1977; Mloszewski, 1983). Today, in Tsavo East National Park, buffalo are the primary prey for lions (Lansing and Kerbis Peterhans, 2000; Gnoske, personal observation, 2001), especially along the Voi River drainage and other permanent waterways where buffalo congregate.
We cannot claim that any single cause will guarantee that a lion will turn into a ‘man-eater’, but it is clear that a variety of causes will increase the likelihood. In regard to the Tsavo situation, we have discounted several factors often proposed to account for man-eating outbreaks. These include peculiar behgavior of the prey, seasonal factors and broken teeth. However, several important pre-conditions for the development of man-eating were in place in Tsavo during the 1890’s. These include a prey-depleted landscape, long standing behavioral traditions, inadvertent provisioning of humans and their livestock, and habitat factors. Although the human toll at Tsavo was claimed to exceed 100 individuals, it seems the total could have been higher. Given the circumstances at Tsavo in the 1890's, instead of asking how so many humans could have been dispatched, we wonder why there weren't more. http://keres.meccahosting.com/~a0003b85/gpage6.html
Nor is it clear why the lions starting eating people in the first place, although Yeake has two theories. For a start, the lion that killed the most people had severe injuries, including diseases of the skull and teeth, skull evinced craniodental, poorly aligned jaws and a fractured tooth. It wasn't exactly a king among beasts, and it supports the idea that big cats are more likely to prey on humans if they're ill or impaired.
The Tsavo killings took place against a backdrop of intense environmental changes. Elephant populations had plummeted and as a result, woodlands were expanding and the savannah's grazers were being driven away. The remaining herds were thinned by a 13-year drought and a pair of viral epidemics in 1889 and 1898. And just as these walking sirloins dwindled away and the lions started to hunger, a new type of prey arrived in the region - humans, charged with building the Uganda Railway. The rest is history.
http://scienceblogs.com/notrocketscience/2009/11/how_many_people_did_the_man-eating_lions_of_tsavo_actually_e.phpJust moments later we spot two lioness’ feeding on a water buffalo they have just killed. http://www.bendobson.co.uk/kenyan-encounters/
Among 418 big cats in the United States who were in need of rescue, only 20 percent of them were lions. Given that 335 tigers were in need of rescue, it stands to reason that at least 335 lions should have been in need of rescue, too. So where did the other 252 lions go? Canned hunting.
.. exotic culinary adventure last week in Dunedin, FL at Spoto’s Steak Joint
.. Perhaps they haven’t seen the UN or Pew reports that say the eating meat is unsustainable. Eating lions? So sad that anyone would pay to do something so irresponsible.
http://advocacy.britannica.com/blog/advocacy/2008/07/man-eating-lions/.."While a big mane impresses everybody, even a small mane can be imposing in hot dry climates, where the costs of overheating are great and most male lions have little or no mane. This is the case in Tsavo, Kenya, where most lions are maneless," said Bruce D. Patterson, PhD, the MacArthur curator of mammals at The Field Museum and lead author of the research...
Dr. Patterson conducting fieldwork in Tsavo National Parks, Kenya.
Dense manes retard heat loss as would a scarf or fur hat. Zoo lions in hot climates adapt with smaller, thinner manes. Those in northern zoos never overheat so no reduction in their mane is necessary.http://fieldmuseum.org/explore/lion-mane-linked-climatehttp://fm1.fieldmuseum.org/aa/Files/patterso/Patterson_et_al_2006_J_Mamma.pdf
Sat, Oct 22, 2011 11:28 AM
Asad wrote:A few unique lions.So confident yes he is a wild lion
Amazing beast right there! - 230-250kg range for sure.
Sat, Oct 22, 2011 4:37 PM
The Mara is its normal self, just
magic. This time of the year is great for cubs whether leopards, lions, hyenas
or topi calves. We have huge numbers of wildebeest and zebra about. The other
day, sitting on my deck at the manyatta, the huge plain in front was packed just
like a migration day!
I understand there have been a
number of great TV programs on the Mara, one saying that the lions are reducing
in numbers. This is true but the prides we do have are rather concentrated with
much overlapping. The distances are not large and are easy for a lion to cover.
They do this more frequently at this time of the year in search of game and this
has resulted in huge fights. Only the other day, just outside the entrance to
the camp, lions were roaring all night as they had killed an old hippo. It was a
female and smallish cub plus two good sized males. Well, although they fought
between themselves they had loads to eat throughout the day but unfortunately
the gang of four up-and-coming boys that hang out in our area got to know about
it during the night and there was a huge and vicious fight. The two old males
and the female defended the kill which resulted in the female being savagely
mauled. The cub was killed and the big boys fought hard to keep their kill and
they certainly bear a few more scars now.
This has been common over the last
three months. The gang of four have started to make their presence known and to
my knowledge they have killed another two sets of cubs. Yuzo enjoyed seeing
these cubs playing out in the open as we all did for about a month. Then the
gang of four arrived. The big male didn’t stand a chance as he had been wounded
from a previous fight and was no match. The girls tried but they too were hurt.
Lions are great healers and usually the damage is only skin deep but on
occasions it can result in a broken jaw or loss of an eye but very rarely more
like a limp.
Down near the Mara river we have
two females with four cubs each which are part of a larger pride. They are so
sweet and lovely to watch, playing with each other and growing by the day. Let’s
hope that some of them make it as, unfortunately, out of the many cubs born in
the last four months very few remain.
On another morning we saw the three
male lions from the local pride. Despite showing signs of a recent fight between
two of them they soon decided all was well between them really and swaggered
down the track – kings of all they surveyed – and the epitome of
http://www.freemansafaris.com/previous_newsletters_1.html In a flash the angry male rushed over. An explosion of roars and flying fur and
claws erupted as the male lion saw fit to punish this infringement of his space.
It was over in an instant, but the adrenalin rush lasted a lot longer.http://www.gavinblairsafaris.com/newsletter/year2005/july2005.html
Sat, Oct 22, 2011 7:50 PM
Get your paws off her! Two lions scrap over of a lioness in full view of
In scenes that you're more likely to see
outside a pub on a Saturday night, the lions stunned tourists, travelling in the
Masai Mara national park in Kenya, by scrapping with each other.
As one lion noticed the other eyeing up his
mate, he lunged, roared and swung at his competitor - and all the while the
lioness causally strolled on while the men claw and bite chunks out of each
Getting catty: The two lions scrap for over 10 minutes
over a lioness while tourists watch on from the safety of their vans
Claws out: The lions stunned tourists, travelling in the
Masai Mara national park in Kenya, by scrapping with each other
The fight lasted more than 10 minutes and the
challenger was put in his place, retreating with his tail between his legs,
while the stronger lion returned to his mate.
Photographer Olga Kirillova was amazed when
she spotted the drama unfolding and managed to capture the whole fight on her
The 25-year-old Russian bank worker said: 'We
were driving through the park hoping to spot some wildlife when we saw the lion
and the lioness in the bushes near the road.
'We started to photograph them when I noticed
another lion in the distance.
'He wandered over to the couple and clearly
had his eye on the lioness.'
Miss Kirillova continued: 'But the first lion just flew at him - they were
rolling around on the ground so close to our cars - it was quite frightening,
but incredible to see.
Getting ugly: The two lions continue their fight on the
side of the road before the challenger retreats, battered and bloody
Victory: Having won the lion catches up with his lioness
mate, to whom he has proved his worth
'They were fighting for at least 10 minutes,
and they drew blood - we could see blood on the first lion's teeth.
'She didn't pay much attention to the fight -
she seemed sure that her lion would win.'
Miss Kirllova added: 'Eventually, the second
lion retreated to the side of the road - it looked like he was rolling around in
'He was completely put to shame by the first
lion - and gave up and ran off. 'The first lion chased him for a while, before
returning to his mate. 'The pair of them then walked away, together,
in the opposite direction. 'It was an amazing thing to have
experienced.' http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1369155/Two-lions-catty-scrap-attentions-lioness.htmlKruger fight Fight over foodhttp://www.pondoro.co.za/game-rangers-report-march-2010.htmlGladitoriumTsholo Mateya had to fight their fathers the Batia brothers for dominance and territory. As you can see on Mateya’s right eye their fathers didn’t take the challenge lightly.
They took over the South Western trerritoty with the Tshabalala pride. It took a while before they had the confidence to face the big Batia brothers. Below They turned around and ran away after the Batias roaring ripped thru the Valley on one of their Patrols
To see a lion fight is probably one of the most intense sightings in Africa and we were privoleged enough to witness it. Tsholo won this fight and the serety gave up his meal.
I took these images of the Mateya male a month or so ago where he scavenged on a dead giraffe. He got badly injured during a fight and had real problems with his back legs. So scavenging was his only option. I haven’t seen him since. Both males had a full life so it was probably his time to go.http://www.grantmarcus.com/?p=92Crater lion takes rest after morning fightIf he can make it past the age of 4 he will be a fighter like his father.
Sun, Oct 23, 2011 12:12 AM
Guests at Footsteps witnessed an incredible and startling sighting this morning, as two lions attacked a hippo at Four Rivers’ Teal Pan.
Hippos are not usually preyed upon by lions – not only are they a fearsome opponent, but they spend much of the day submerged and hidden from sight in pools and rivers.
This particular hippo had clearly been in a territorial fight with another hippo, and was badly wounded. His injuries were serious enough for him to remain out of the water, and this is what led to his ultimate demise.
Two hungry male lions discovered the hippo standing next to Teal Pan, and as the opportunists they are, decided they were more than a match for the injured animal. However, the hippo was still extremely strong and put up a good fight against the two lions. Some five hours after they first spotted the hippo, and after a truly exhausting battle, the lions finally brought the hippo down and were rewarded with a meal fit for the king of the bush.http://www.kerdowneybotswana.com/ker_downey_blog/unusual-hippo-lion-attack/30 Hyenas vs big lion
The presence of a large kill brought with
it the inevitable hyena party. At its
peak, numbers reached about 30, yet none of them were bold enough, or stupid
enough to try and steal a morsel from the ferocious diners. Each time they plucked up the courage to form a raiding party, they were sent
scurrying by the biggest of the males.
Ultimately, the coalition finished off every palatable item and the
hyenas were left looking forlorn and miserable as they scrabbled over the scarce
remains with the vultureshttp://tailsofthebush.blogspot.com/2011/08/eternal-enemies.htmlIts great to see lions age gracefully
Brothers, the Naledi Males - nearing the end of their territorial leadership?
The converse is invariably more touching. We spent some time with a very old male down at Pofu Dam, a few days ago. We are not sure of his identity however, his overall condition and with what appears to be a broken lower jaw, makes him hauntingly unforgettable.
Old Male Lion @ Pofu Dam
The vitality, strength and sense of the invincible, so evident in youth, is poignantly balanced against the battle scarred, lack luster disposition of the aged in these photographic visuals of lions both at Jamala Madikwe and Pofu Dam, Madikwe Game Reserve.
The ravages of age evident in the face of this old male @ Pofu Dam.
The girls were both in estrous and a rather handsome male lion had taken on the responsibility of ensuring continuity of his regal lineage. In time, we came to know these lions well. Territorial ownership belonged to a coalition of two brothers known as the “Kagala Males” and the lionesses were two sisters who carried the title of “The Mica’s”. A formidable pride of lion, still much respected by those guides who dare to conduct walks within their area.
The Naledi Male, father of the five cubs born to the Jamala Female in July 2011. This boy was photographed (above) after his “Battle Royale” with his brother. The two brothers clashed over mating rights to the second of the Jamala Females, August 2011.Sibling rivalry is not uncommon.This is very often the case when observing the two Naledi Male Lions. We have witnessed, on the odd occasion, an argument or two between these heavy weight sluggers. More often than not, teeth flash and claws rake their way to a fiery decision over a choice fillet. The boys generally settle down and the close bond of a brotherhood reaffirms their coalition.
The second of the two brothers lay-up approximately 50 meters from the rest of the group, well fed and clearly not fraternizing with either of the two girls. It has always been our opinion that two brothers will share the undertaking of stud duties. It is more about the continuation of the genetic line rather than the pleasure of the physical act itself.
Were we ever wrong!!
The Jamala Female snuck up the drainage line toward the second of the two brothers and with illicit abandonment she presented herself. In a flash, the male grabbed his opportunity and covered the female, all the while keeping an eye on his fast approaching brother. Loaded with testosterone and as mad as hell, the two brothers ripped into each other.The brutality of the fight, exacerbated by extreme roaring, is as intense as it gets! Blood dripping from his mouth and with his claim on the wanton female re-established, “The Better Looking” of the two males proclaims his victory, personal pride regained and a brother punished for a chance taken.http://www.jamalamadikwe.co.za/category/blog/
Sun, Oct 23, 2011 10:43 AM
Sun, Oct 23, 2011 11:02 AM
Sun, Oct 23, 2011 11:06 AM
Sun, Oct 23, 2011 11:09 AM
In this amazing wildlife snapshot a female Bengal Tiger fights her 18 month old cub.
But these Bengal tigers are not just play fighting, this is a serious, wound-inflicting battle - they fight when it is time for the cubs to move on and find their own territory.
This rare set of pictures by wildlife photographer Andy Rouse captures the little seen moment in which a mother's cub asserts its claim for hunting territory.
Andy managed to witness the violent scuffle between 13-year-old mother Machali and her female cub at India's Ranthambore National Park.
He notes that Machali's fights with her cubs have been so punishing that she has lost three canine teeth in a period of two weeks.
"When they get to 18 months old the cubs get independent and are hunting for themselves and they want a bit of territory," explains Andy.
"Of course, the most obvious territory to take is a bit of the mothers.
"It happens with every set of cubs when it comes to that time, it depends on the level of violence which can be entirely different. There is always some fighting, but normally it is very hard to see.”
Sun, Oct 23, 2011 11:13 AM
Machali, a 14-year-old tigress at the famous Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve, was photographed trying to defend a kill last year by conservationist Aditya Dicky Singh.
Mr Singh captured the clash between Machali and the younger male, known only as T28, on April 1 2009.
The spectacular fight lasted less than a minute and ended with the submission of Machali, who lost her meal as a result.
"We entered the park hoping to see some action but what we got to see just blew us away," said Mr Singh, who was just 20 metres away when the fight erupted.
"It was a violent dance, both loud and aggressive, a life-time experience."
The old matriarch held her ground before the big cats launched themselves at each other. Everntually, the younger male stole Machalis catch a sambar, or Indian deer,
Sun, Oct 23, 2011 11:18 AM
Sun, Oct 23, 2011 6:55 PM
perrault wrote:Up to your old habits jinen ?
What u mean?
Get real dude, with your imaginary 300 kg b2 tigers.
My habits, lol...watch your life of ignorance before accusing idiot. ( u are one ...)
Sun, Oct 23, 2011 7:31 PM
Sun, Oct 23, 2011 10:44 PM
Sun, Oct 23, 2011 10:57 PM
There had been some roaring back and forth between this female, the rest of
her pride, and the big male. We had located the lions through their calling,
wanting to see the female, ever hopeful of spotting her cubs.
The female was alone when we first saw her, moving quickly towards the rest
of the pride. There is a strong bond between pride members, which is reaffirmed
by sniffing, nose rubbing and body contact.
We watched this behaviour as the lone female joined the pride. While this was
happening, the male stayed a little way off, lying down in the grass. The lone
female then suddenly sat up, looked intently at the male and started towards
him. One of the other females joined her.
I had positioned the vehicle with the best possible view for the meeting and
the interaction between the male and females, with little idea it was going to
be as dramatic as it was.
As I started shooting pictures, the sequence of events unfolded extremely
fast in front of us. There was always going to be some kind of interaction — but
the ferocity and intensity was beyond anything I anticipated.
I was completely stunned. It was one of those moments a photographer longs
for — nobody can predict how events are going to unfold or to what degree, and
then something like this happens in an incredible way.
Sun, Oct 23, 2011 11:26 PM
Long Live The Two King Of Beasts!
Mon, Oct 24, 2011 11:40 AM
I don't think the Asiatic Lion ever roamed the jungles of India..just the forests and open plains....
Can a lion live in the jungle?
Lions can and do live in jungles (though it's probably better to use the term 'rainforest', the word jungle refers to a specific kind of rainforest). While we are more familiar with them on the African plains, they do live in the rainforests of Africa and the Asian lion also lives in the Indian forests.
i heard that a tiger dragged a bull gaur which 13men were not able to pull. what was the weight of the tiger and gaur?
do u know about interaction between tiger and saltwater crocodiles in sunderbans?
which is intelligent lion or tiger?
In answer to your questions I would expect them both to be pretty much the same in strength given how similar they are in size and how closely related they are. If anything the tiger might be a little stronger since they often drag their prey away from where it was killed which lions do not, so the tiger may have evolved to be a little stronger.
I have heard lots of stories like the one you describe and of course this is the problem, it's just a story. There is no record of how big the gaur was, or the people, or the tiger, or how they tried to carry it or anything else. You really can't trust things like this, however interesting they might be.
I'm not aware of records of these animals coming together, though there are some videos of tigers fighting (and killing) small mugger crocodiles online if you look.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090911145030.htmtiger being bigger than a lion ..The team also looked at the popular idea that tigers are ‘bigger’ than lions (which could mean that the tiger’s relatively bigger brain size simply reflects its bigger body). However, careful re-evaluation of original field data and relatively well-documented hunting records does not support this idea...The Asian lion has a relatively much smaller brain compared with those of sub-Saharan lions, between which there are few differences. .. Differences in brain size do not appear to correlate with any known differences in behaviour and ecology and, therefore, may reflect only chance differences in intrageneric and intraspecific phylogeny. However, captive-bred big cats generally have a reduced brain size compared with that of wild animals, so that an animal's life history and living conditions may affect brain size and, hence, functional or environmental explanations should be considered when linking brain size differences to intraspecific phylogenies.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2009.01249.x/abstract;jsessionid=A5B62DF74406E3F5525B0796760B754F.d03t02
..Various populations known from fossils by names P. atrox, P. fossilis, P. spelaea, and P. vereshchagini are now regarded as conspecific with P. leo (Burger et al. 2004; Harington 1977; Hemmer 1976, 1979a). In Europe and northern Asia, lion populations may have become isolated due to widespread ice sheets. American and cave lions became extinct ca. 10,000 years ago (Harington 1996).
..Until ca.1850, lions were distributed across the Indian subcontinent and were found in present-day states of Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh (Chellam and Johnsingh 1993). By early 1900s, the Asian subspecies was drastically reduced and today is confined to the Gir Sanctuary of Gujurat State in western India, where it was initially protected by the Nawab of Junagadh in his private hunting grounds (Kinnear 1920)...The mane serves as protection during intraspecific fighting, a signpost of gender distinguishable at a distance, an indicator of individual fitness, and insulation for the neck (Caputo 2002), but may have evolved recently (320,000–190,000 years ago—Yamaguchi et al. 2004)...For males, length of head and body ranges from 1,700 to 2,500 mm, length of tail is 900–1,050 mm, height at shoulder is ca. 1,230 mm (Nowak and Paradiso 1983),..Adult sex ratio for African and Asian subspecies (1 male to 2.1 females) is skewed heavily in favor of females because of high male mortality, especially during subadulthood (Chellam and Johnsingh 1993; Smuts 1978b; Van Orsdol et al. 1985)...Lions are dominant to hyenas except when substantially outnumbered (1 or 2 lions per 20–40 hyenas); lions generally surrender the remnants of a kill to hyenas only after consuming most of the meat (Packer 1986)...severe stress due to human hunting has been linked with fatal capture myopathy (Joubert and Stander 1990)...Territorial defense involves male, female, and juvenile lions (Grinnell and McComb 1996; Heinsohn 1997; Heinsohn et al. 1996; McComb et al. 1993). Males defend the pride against incursions by other males, thereby ensuring some exclusivity in mating, and females defend their young against infanticidal males and their territory against adjacent female prides (Packer et al. 1991). Male lions have territorial patrols that protect the pride from others (Packer and Pusey 1997). Females protect denning sites, hunting grounds, and water holes from other prides (Packer and Pusey 1997). As they approach sexual maturity, juvenile lionesses become progressively more likely to join adult females in territorial defense (Heinsohn et al. 1996). ..Increased aggression in pride defense occurs with high lion density, such as in the Ngorongoro Crater (Heinsohn 1997; McComb et al. 1994). Territorial disputes often end with larger groups chasing off smaller groups (Hanby et al. 1995). Males defend their area by using cooperative behavior that is not conditional on either kinship or behavior of the male’s companions (Grinnell et al. 1995). Roaring may facilitate communication within prides as well as discourage the approach of nonpride members from a territory (McComb et al. 1994)...In a pride takeover, a coalition of males that generally are related either attack and kill or otherwise cause the deaths of small cubs (Hanby and Bygott 1987; Packer and Pusey 1997)...Cohorts of >3 males usually enter new prides as a group, but cohorts of only 1 or 2 males often team up with single males from other prides to achieve successful takeover of a pride (Packer et al. 1991)...The 1st male to find a female in estrus will guard her and attack any approaching male (Packer and Pusey 1997).
..P. leo ..well-proportioned, muscular body more drawn in at belly compared with the tiger (Rudnai 1973a)...C. R. Harington and C. Packer reviewed earlier drafts of this manuscript.http://www.science.smith.edu/msi/pdf/762_Panthera_leo.pdf
Mon, Oct 24, 2011 4:03 PM
Brain size of the lion (Panthera leo) and the tiger (P. tigris): implications for intrageneric phylogeny, intraspecific differences and the effects of captivity
ANDREW C. KITCHENER2,
DAVID W. MACDONALD1
Article first published online: 25 AUG 2009 ..The team also looked at the popular idea that tigers are ‘bigger’ than lions (which could mean that the tiger’s relatively bigger brain size simply reflects its bigger body). However, careful re-evaluation of original field data and relatively well-documented hunting records does not support this idea.
..Unfortunately we have no other evidence to suggest that tigers are more intelligent than lions.”
.. The team studied the skulls of 370 lions, 225 tigers, 32 jaguars, and 42 leopards from museums around the world for the research that was published in Biological Journal of the Linnean Society…They concluded that the tigers have a relatively bigger brain (around 16 per cent larger) than lions, given their very similar average body sizes.
.. Dr Yamaguchi said despite the disparity in brain size, the lion remained at the top of the food chain.
“Because lions are in groups they just beat up solitary animals like tigers - but then maybe tigers are intelligent enough to stay out of their way.” http://www.telegraph.co.u...brainier-than-lions.html
Distinguishing skulls of lions (Panthera leo) and tigers (Panthera tigris)
Zoological Museum, Department of Vertebrates, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen+, Denmark
Received 27 June 2007; accepted 8 August 2007
Keywords:Lion; Tiger; Skull morphology; Morphometry
The lion (Panthera leo L.) and the tiger (Panthera tigrisL.) are the largest extant felids (Nowak 1991; Sunquist and Sunquist 2002), and their conspicuous and immediately recognisable external morphology belies the fact that osteologically, they are very similar. Few comparative analyses have been done on their skull morphology, and, accordingly, explicit characters dis- tinguishing lions and tigers are not presently known
.. It is true that easily recognisable characters distin- guishing singular lions and tigers are frequently blurred and even obliterated when analysing large samples. However, their skulls are by no means osteologically identical, and producing a multivariate analysis which distinguishes lions from tigers with 100% certainty is easily accomplished, as shown below (see alsoHerring- ton 1987). However, the purpose of this study was to http://www.scribd.com/doc/19692355/Distinguishing-Skulls-of-Lions-Panthera-Leo-and-Tigers-Panthera-Tigris
..Indeed, something that couldn't be covered in the episode is that, yes, lions and tigers are similar, but they're not especially similar among the big cats; rather, all the big cats (indeed, all cats) are highly similar, and I would say that people only think of lions and tigers as being similar because both are similar in size. Most studies show that tigers and lions aren't even that close within Panthera: lions are part of a 'spotted clade' that also includes leopards and jaguars, while tigers lie elsewhere, possibly being the sister-taxon to the Snow leopard (Bininda-Emonds et al. 2001, Burger et al. 2004, Yu & Zhang 2005, Johnson et al. 2006).http://scienceblogs.com/t...ing_lions_and_tigers.php
Mon, Oct 24, 2011 4:42 PM
Mon, Oct 24, 2011 5:10 PM
The hunt - Ranthambhore NP
This is one of those moments that comes along once in ages - an opportunity to see a tiger charge a prey. While I wished I had my 500/4 on me, just witnessing this was privilege enough!
She had made a kill by the roadside the previous day. By the next afternoon, word had gotten around and there were a few jeeps all stationed to get a view of her feeding. Obviously a sensitive eater, the tigress dragged the heavy carcass into the bushes before commencing her meal.
Tiger attacking domestic cattle
Tiger sneaking from behind
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