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Mon, Oct 24, 2011 5:20 PM
Mon, Oct 24, 2011 5:50 PM
Mon, Oct 24, 2011 6:16 PM
Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, ChinaAbstract
Whether prey retains antipredator behavior after a long period of predator relaxation is an important question in predator-prey evolution. Père David's deer have been raised in enclosures for more than 1200 years and this isolation provides an opportunity to study whether Père David's deer still respond to the cues of their ancestral predators or to novel predators. We played back the sounds of crows (familiar sound) and domestic dogs (familiar non-predators), of tigers and wolves (ancestral predators), and of lions (potential naïve predator) to Père David's deer in paddocks, and blank sounds to the control group, and videoed the behavior of the deer during the experiment. We also showed life-size photo models of dog, leopard, bear, tiger, wolf, and lion to the deer and video taped their responses after seeing these models. Père David's deer stared at and approached the hidden loudspeaker when they heard the roars of tiger or lion. The deer listened to tiger roars longer, approached to tiger roars more and spent more time staring at the tiger model. The stags were also found to forage less in the trials of tiger roars than that of other sound playbacks. Additionally, it took longer for the deer to restore their normal behavior after they heard tiger roars, which was longer than that after the trial of other sound playbacks. Moreover, the deer were only found to walk away after hearing the sounds of tiger and wolf. Therefore, the tiger was probably the main predator for Père David's deer in ancient time. Our study implies that Père David's deer still retain the memories of the acoustic and visual cues of their ancestral predators in spite of the long term isolation from natural habitat.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21887286Lions have developed an astonishing tactical hunting behavior.We used global positioning system collars to monitor the movements of African lions (Panthera leo) and identified their kill sites to distinguish between these two hypotheses. Lions moved to a different area (≥ 5 km away) after 87% of the kills, which supports the patch-disturbance hypothesis for patch-departure behavior of large mammalian carnivores.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21750389.. We found that lions encountered preferred prey species far more frequently than expected based on their abundance, and they hunted these species more frequently than expected based on this higher encounter rate. Lions responded variably to non-preferred and avoided prey species throughout the predatory sequence, although they hunted avoided prey far less frequently than expected based on the number of encounters of them. We conclude that actions of lions throughout the predatory behavioural sequence, but particularly early on, drive the prey preferences that have been documented for this species. Once a hunt is initiated, evolutionary adaptations to the predator-prey interactions drive hunting success.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21915261Fear of darkness, the full moon and the nocturnal ecology of African lions.
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America. [email protected]Abstract
Nocturnal carnivores are widely believed to have played an important role in human evolution, driving the need for night-time shelter, the control of fire and our innate fear of darkness. However, no empirical data are available on the effects of darkness on the risks of predation in humans. We performed an extensive analysis of predatory behavior across the lunar cycle on the largest dataset of lion attacks ever assembled and found that African lions are as sensitive to moonlight when hunting humans as when hunting herbivores and that lions are most dangerous to humans when the moon is faint or below the horizon. At night, people are most active between dusk and 10:00 pm, thus most lion attacks occur in the first weeks following the full moon (when the moon rises at least an hour after sunset). Consequently, the full moon is a reliable indicator of impending danger, perhaps helping to explain why the full moon has been the subject of so many myths and misconceptions.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21799812Effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania.
Department of Ecology, Evolution & Behavior, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108, U.S.A. [email protected]Abstract
Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters. As a first step toward establishing sustainable management strategies, we analyzed harvest trends for lions and leopards across Tanzania's 300,000 km(2) of hunting blocks. We summarize lion population trends in protected areas where lion abundance has been directly measured and data on the frequency of lion attacks on humans in high-conflict agricultural areas. We place these findings in context of the rapidly growing human population in rural Tanzania and the concomitant effects of habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and cultural practices. Lion harvests declined by 50% across Tanzania between 1996 and 2008, and hunting areas with the highest initial harvests suffered the steepest declines. Although each part of the country is subject to some form of anthropogenic impact from local people, the intensity of trophy hunting was the only significant factor in a statistical analysis of lion harvest trends. Although leopard harvests were more stable, regions outside the Selous Game Reserve with the highest initial leopard harvests again showed the steepest declines. Our quantitative analyses suggest that annual hunting quotas be limited to 0.5 lions and 1.0 leopard/1000 km(2) of hunting area, except hunting blocks in the Selous Game Reserve, where harvests should be limited to 1.0 lion and 3.0 leopards/1000 km(2) .
2010 Society for Conservation Biology.Save the big cats!
african lion panthera leo being skinned - had been legally shot
for killing cattle. laikipia district, kenya.
Mon, Oct 24, 2011 8:07 PM
Mon, Oct 24, 2011 8:57 PM
Mon, Oct 24, 2011 10:10 PM
Tue, Oct 25, 2011 10:51 AM
19th Jul 2011 Posted in: Kenya Camps, Mara Plains Camp, Recently Spotted 0
A valiant effort by this lone Lioness to put a monster feast on the table, but without the strength of her pride to help bring down this awkward giant the Lioness was fighting a losing battle.
Photograph by Mr. Wayne Tremblay
In recent weeks, the five massive males that are Notch and his four sons have successfully taken down Hippo, weighing down it’s back end with claws and teeth to ensure they stayed well clear of the lethal Hippo jaws and the safety of water where Hippos head off to when under attack on land, while the other brothers launched onto the animal’s back and severed it’s spinal cord. A nasty way to go, but an epic hunt indeed.
The Tailless Female standing proud, tall and always watchful - Jess Boon
As soon as the Tsalala sisters saw the younger lioness they ran towards her growling and slashing away at her. She rolled onto her back and played the submissive card. Tailless sensing that her companion was in trouble actually intercepted the sisters and lay on top of the younger lioness protecting her. It was incredible to watch. There was an element of love yet this love was punctuated with uncertainty, nervousness and confusion”
The aftermath of the reunion. Very evident in this photo is the torn and bleeding ear - Jess Boon
Lion and lionessesHe came to each of the lionesses, sniffed their bums, and touched their noses.
Lioness eager to mate
The last lioness, we found, was eager to get it on (in the immortal words of Marvin Gaye), and kept showing her teeth to the male lion.
After hearing the constant roaring of male lions from the deck of the lodge one morning we were eager to get out on safari to see what all the commotion was about. The roars came from our southern boundary with Londolozi and when we got there we were surprised to see the young Styx male lion appearing from the bushes. He had definitely been feeding as he was full of blood and his belly was stretched to the maximum, he was presumably chased off the kill by bigger male lions (The Majingilanes…who were the ones calling). The Styx male was contact calling as well, one wonders who he was calling to?
Young Female Leopard, Shadow
Safe up at the top of a Leadwood tree, this young female leopard keeps a close eye on the sleeping lionesses below. She had a close call and was surprised by the Tslalala lionesses while she was on her territorial patrol
Majingilanes, beware. These young male lions have made quite a few appearances over the past few months and although they are young they are some of the biggest lions I have seen. In a year or two these four lions are going to be serious contenders against the Majingilanes.
Young Male Lion Coalition, the boys from the Southern PrideThey are a powerful and impressive unit and should be able to defend their territory long enough to even sire another generation which will increase the lion population to a sizable number.
Tue, Oct 25, 2011 11:32 AM
Tue, Oct 25, 2011 11:46 AM
Tue, Oct 25, 2011 11:51 AM
Male lion fight
Long Live The Two King Of Beasts!
Tue, Oct 25, 2011 1:43 PM
Tue, Oct 25, 2011 2:53 PM
Tue, Oct 25, 2011 3:06 PM
Tue, Oct 25, 2011 6:06 PM
Wed, Oct 26, 2011 1:55 PM
Wed, Oct 26, 2011 2:19 PM
Here a young male fights with his brother or another lion.
He either fought with his brother over the second girl or with another lion. Clearly, he was badly injured in the eye in particular but still managed to maintain his usual composure. He was sickly, sleepy and weak.
We immediately knew this was his price for doubling up the sisters. Meanwhile, his brother looked okay but kept his distance. This physical confrontation is normal because the mating system in lions, is one in which intense direct aggression occurs among males for access to females.
Wed, Oct 26, 2011 3:27 PM
Wed, Oct 26, 2011 3:33 PM
Wed, Oct 26, 2011 4:24 PM
lioness2010 wrote:Nice Perrualt.
Here a young male fights with his brother or another lion.He either fought with his brother over the second girl or with another lion. Clearly, he was badly injured in the eye in particular but still managed to maintain his usual composure. He was sickly, sleepy and weak.We immediately knew this was his price for doubling up the sisters. Meanwhile, his brother looked okay but kept his distance. This physical confrontation is normal because the mating system in lions, is one in which intense direct aggression occurs among males for access to females.http://lionguardians.wild...t.org/2011/04/02/sikiria’s-price-of-double-courtship/
Wed, Oct 26, 2011 4:26 PM
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